Acoustic implants

The work group ‘acoustic implants’ of the ENT clinic at the MHH, is centered around the biophysics of cochlear stimulation. With a main focus on acoustic stimulation by active middle ear implants and bone conduction devices, experimental and clinical-audiological investigations are combined to develop new technical approaches. In addition, basic aspects of optical and electrical stimulation and physiology of the cochlea are investigated. Within collaborative projects together with most major manufacturers results are translated into clinical applications.


Prof. Dr. phil. nat.
Hannes Maier
Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic
Dipl. Phys.
Konrad Bethmann
Mit Balvantray Bhavsar
Mohammad Ghoncheh
Tiago Rocha Felix
Dipl. Ing.
D. Stauske



H. Maier. Audiological target parameters in clinical trials with implantable hearing systems. HNO (2021), 69 (6), 483 - 490,, PMID: 32399645.

S. Raufer, U. A. Gamm, M. Grossöhmichen, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Middle ear actuator performance 1 determined from intracochlear pressure measurements in a single cochlear scale. Otology & Neurotology (2021), 42 (1): e86-e93.

U. A. Gamm, N. K. Prenzler, M. E. Tiemm, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Performance evaluation of coupling variants for an active middle ear implant actuator: output, conductive losses and stability of coupling with ambient pressure changes. Otology & Neurotology (2021) 42 (1); e86-e93. doi: 10.1097/mao.0000000000003097.

Sprinzl G, Lenarz T, Hagen R, Baumgartner WD, Keintzel T, Keck T, Riechelmann H, Magele A, Salcher R, Maier H, Mlynski R, Radeloff A, Rak K, Riss D, Liepins R, Hamzavi S, Rasse T, Potzinger P, Schmutzhard J, Zorowka P, Mittmann P, Böheim K, Todt I. "Long-Term, Multicenter Results With the First Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Implant." Otology & Neurotology, (2021), 858-866. doi: 10.1097/MAO.000000003159. PMID: 33989254.
M. Ghoncheh, S. Stenfelt, P. Maas, R. B. Salcher, N. Prenzler, S. Raufer, H. Maier. Output performance of the novel active transcutaneous bone conduction implant Sentio at different stimulation sites. Hearing Research (2021), doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2021.108369, PMID: 34728110.

L. Zelarayan, V. Vendrell, E. Dominguez-Frutos, I. Lopez-Hernandez, Y. Alvarez, K. Schimmang-Alonso, M. Alonso, H. Maier, M. Anderson, M. Lewandoski, T. Schimmang. Inactivation of Fgf3 and Fgf4 within the Fgf3/Fgf4/Fgf15 gene cluster reveals their redundant requirement for inner ear induction and embryonic survival. Developmental Dynamics (2021), DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.435.

H. Maier, T. Lenarz, P. Agha-Mir-Salim. M. J. H. Agterberg, A. Anagiotos, S. Arndt, G. Ball, M. Bance, M. Barbara, U. Baumann, W. Baumgartner, D. Bernardeschi, D. Beutner, A. Bosman, R. Briggs, S. Busch, M. Caversaccio, M. Dahm, E. Dalhoff, A. Devèze, A. Ebrahimi-Madiseh, B. Fraysse, H. Frenzel, J. Gavilán, M. Ghoncheh, B. E. V. Hakansson, W. Hodgetts, M. Hol, J. Holland, M. Holmberg, A. M. Huber, H. Jenkins, R. Katiri, K. Kheirkhah, A. Koitschev, M. Kompis, C. Lanting, L. Lassaletta, B. Lerut, R. Leuwer, T. Linder, H. Löwenheim, L. Lustig, R. Mandavia, M. Manrique, J. Humberto Martins, G. Mertens, R. Mlynski, H. Mojallal, S. Monini, P. Monksfield, A. Müller, E. Mylanus, H. Nakajima, M. Neudert, E. Offeciers, F. Pfiffner, M. Pietsch, S. K. Plontke, N. Prenzler, M. Profant, T. Rahne, G. Rajan, A. Ratuszniak, S. Raufer, J. Ray, S. Reinfeldt, C. Röösli, T. Rosenbom, R. Salcher, M. Schönermark, B. Schwab, H. Skarżyński, P. H. Skarżyński, H. Snapp, G. Sprinzl, M. Spearman, S. Stenfelt, C. Stieger, S. Tringali, E. Truy, J. Tysome, P. Van de Heyning, N. Verhaert, T. Wesarg, P. Westerkull, B. Wollenberg, T. Zahnert, A. Zarowski, A.F.M. Snik. Consensus Statement on Acoustic Implants in conductive and mixed hearing loss. Otology & Neurotology (2021), accepted.

S. Busch, M. Ghoncheh, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Stimulation efficiency of an actuator driven piston at the biological interface to the inner ear. Scientific Reports 2021; doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-03195-x. PMID: 34887508.

K. Willenborg, E. Avallone, H. Maier, T. Lenarz, S. Busch. A new active osseointegrated implant system in patients with single-sided deafness. Audiol Neurootol 27, 83-92, doi:10.1159/000515489 (2022).online Apr 26:1-9, doi: 10.1159/000515489. PMID: 33902037.


Wardenga N, Diedrich V, Waldmann B, Lenarz T, Maier H: Hearing Aid Treatment in Patients with Mixed Hearing Loss. Part I: Expected Benefit and Limitations after Stapes Surgery. Audiol Neurootol (2020); 25:125-132.

Wardenga N, Snik AFM, Kludt E, Waldmann B, Lenarz T, Maier H: Hearing Aid Treatment for Patients with Mixed Hearing Loss. Part II: Speech Recognition in Comparison to Direct Acoustic Cochlear Stimulation. Audiol & Neurootol (2020); 25:133-142.

D. Zimmermann, S. Busch, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Audiological results with the SAMBA audio processor in comparison to the Amadé for the Vibrant Soundbridge. Audiology & Neurotology, 2020:1-8.

Ghoncheh M, Lenarz T, Maier H. A Precision Driver Device for Intraoperative Stimulation of a Bone Conduction Implant. Scientific Reports 2020; 10: 1797.

R. B. Salcher, M. Schmidtheisler, A. Büchner, T. Giere, D. Zimmermann, S. Busch, M. E. Timm, H. Maier, T. Lenarz. Case Report of the First Patient with Electro-Mechanical Stimulation of the Inner Ear: the Vibrant Soundbridge combined with a FLEX20 Cochlear Implant. DOI: 10.1016/j.xocr.2020.100182; Otolaryngology Case Reports (2020), 16:100182.


Snik A, Maier H, Hodgetts B, Kompis M, Mertens G, van de Heyning P, Lenarz T, Bosman A: Efficacy of Auditory Implants for Patients With Conductive and Mixed Hearing Loss Depends on Implant Center. Otol & Neurotol (2019), 40: 430-435.

U. A. Gamm, M. Grossöhmichen, R. B. Salcher, N. K. Prenzler, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Optimum coupling of an active middle ear implant actuator: effect of loading forces on actuator output and conductive losse. Otology & Neurotology (2019), 40 (6); 789-796.

N. K. Prenzler, E. Kludt, T. Giere, R. Salcher, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Middle Ear Transducer: Long Term Stability of the Latest Generation T2. Biomed Res Int. (2019), Article ID 4346325, 6 pages,

Huebner AK, Maier H, Maul A, Nietzsche S, Herrmann T, Praetorius J, Hubner CA: Early hearing loss upon disruption of Slc4a10 in C57BL/6 mice. JARO 2019; 20: 233-245.

M. Müller, R. Salcher, N. Prenzler, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Redesign of the Hannover Coupler: Optimized Vibration Transfer from Floating Mass Transducer to Round Window. Biomed Res Int (2018), 2018, ID 3701954, 8 pg,

N. K. Prenzler, L. Gruber, T. Lenarz, H. Maier, B. Schwab. The impact of two-stage subtotal petrosectomy and round window vibroplasty on bone conduction thresholds (2018), Am. J. Otolaryngol (2018) 80 (2); 77-84.

T. Rader, T. Stöver, T. Lenarz, H. Maier, T. Zahnert, T. Beleites, R. Hagen, R. Mlynski, W. D. Baumgartner. Retrospective analysis of hearing-impaired adult patients treated with an active transcutaneous bone conduction implant. (2018) Otology & Neurotology (2018), online.

H. Maier, T. Lenarz, L.-V. Dolležal, S. Busch. Direct acoustic cochlear implants lead to an improved speech perception gap compared to conventional hearing aid (2018). Otology & Neurotology (2018), 39(9), p.1147-1152, doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2018.05.016.

H. Maier, W.-D. Baumgartner, D. Beutner, M. Caversaccio, T. Keintzel, M. Kompis, A. Magele, T. Mewes, A. Müller, T. Rader, T. Rahne, S. Schraven, B. Schwab, B. Strauchmann, I. Todt, T. Wesarg, B. Wollenberg, S. Plontke. Minimal reporting standards in the field off Active Middle Ear Hearing Implants. (2018) Audiology & Neurotology (2018), Audiol Neurotol 2018;23:105-115 (DOI:10.1159/000490878).

T. Lenarz, D. Zimmermann, H. Maier, S Busch. Case report of a new Vibrant Soundbridge coupler for round window application. Otology & Neurotology (2018), 39(10), p.e1060-e1063, doi: 10.1097/mao.0000000000001996.

M. Grossöhmichen, R. Salcher, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Measurement of Intracochlear Pressure Differences in Human Temporal Bones using an off-the-shelf Pressure Sensor. In: Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, vol. 84. P. Wriggers, T. Lenarz editors, ISBN 978-3-319-59547-4, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-59548-1,, Springer 2018 335-348.


R. Salcher, D. Zimmermann, T. Gerdes, T. Giere, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Audiological results in SSD with an active transcutaneous bone conduction implant at a retrosigmoidal position. Otology & Neurotology (2017), 38, (5), 642 - 647.

E. Kludt, C. D'hondt, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Clinical Validation of a Sound Processor Upgrade in Direct Acoustic Cochlear Implant subjects. Otology & Neurotology(2017), 38 (5), 655 - 661.
S. Busch, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Comparison of alternative coupling methods of the Vibrant Soundbridge FMT. Audiology & Neurotology (2017), 21 (6), 347-355.

M. Müller, R. Salcher, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. The Hannover Coupler: Controlled Static Pre-Stress in Round Window Stimulation with the Floating Mass Transducer. Otology & Neurotology (2017), 38:1186-1192.

W. J. van Drunen, M. Müller, A. Glukhovskoy, M. C. Wurz, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Feasibility of Round Window Stimulation by a Novel Electromagnetic Micro-Actuator. I BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, Article ID 6369247, 8 pg, 2017., doi:10.1155/2017/6369247.

M. Grossöhmichen, B. Waldmann, R. Salcher, N. Prenzler, T. Lenarz, H. Maier. Validation of methods for prediction of clinical output levels of active middle ear implants from measurements in human cadaveric ears. (2017), Scientific Reports, 7: 15877, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-16107-9.

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Active middle ear implants, bone conduction hearing aids, optoacoustic stimulation, physiology and electrophysiology of the cochlea, impedance spectroscopy.

Prof. Dr. phil. nat. Hannes Maier

+49 511 532-7236


Stadtfelddamm 34
30625 Hanover


A. Kral, F. Aplin, H. Maier. Prostheses for the brain: introduction to neuroprosthetics. ISBN: 9780128188927. Elsevier 2021.

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Patents and patent applications

Maier, H., Palm, S. (2006), Method for operating and evaluation device and device for measuring a depth of anaesthesia. Patent Appl.: WO2006045302 A1

Maier, H. (2011), Implantable actuator for direct cochlear stimulation. Appl. No.: WO2011036310 A2

Maier, H. (2011), Implantable Microphone. Appl. No., WO2011064409 A2, Patent US9584926

Maier, H. (2011), Implantable Microphone. Appl. No.: WO2011064410 A2, Patent US 9451375 B2

Maier, H. (2011), Implantable Microphone. Appl. No.: WO2011064411 A2

Maier, H., Waldmann, B., (2011), Implantable Microphone. Appl. No.: WO2011042569 A2, Patent US8879755

H. Maier, W. Nogueira, A. Büchner, T. Lenarz, A. Kral. (2017) Irradiation Device and Method for Irradiating a Radiation Absorbing Medium, Hearing Aid Device and Laser Surgery Device, in particular for Laser Ear Surgery, with such an Irradiation Device Appl. No. PCT/EP2018/067243, Patent WO2019/002365

H.H. Nakajima, D. Frear, C. Stieger, H. Maier. (2018). Coupler Device for Round Window Stimulation of the Cochlea. Appl. No. US62/448680. PCT/US2018/014423, Patent WO2018/136737 A1.