Electrode-Nerve Interface

In the WG, two main topics are addressed. One topic is the optimization of the electrode-nerve interface using the example of the cochlear implant and covering the complete range from cell culture to measurements in the patient. The second main pillar is the development and testing of treatment options for functional disorders of the Eustachian tube.


PD Dr.
Gerrit Paasche
Department of Otorhinolaryngology
Wiebke Behrends
PhD student
Jasmine Bohlmann
Technical Assistant
Halina Ebel
PhD student
Malena Ezzat
Lennart Fibranz
PhD student
Ida Janzen-Senn
PhD student
Lisa Kötter
Technical Assistant
Tim Luke Lübbersmeyer
PhD student
Alexandra Napp
PhD student
Niels Oppel
PhD student
Friederike Pohl
Jannis-Fiete Riedemann
PhD student
Lena Rose bush
PhD student
Catherine Schmitt
PhD student
Robert Schuon
Specialist ENT
Stina Winkelmann
PhD student
Dr. rer. nat
Kirsten Wissel


Scheper V, Seidel-Effenberg I, Lenarz T, Stöver T, Paasche G. Consecutive Treatment with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Electrical Stimulation Has a Protective Effect on Primary Auditory Neurons. Brain Sci. 2020 Aug 15;10(8):559. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10080559.

Konrad S, Framke T, Kludt E, Büchner A, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Do Impedance Changes Correlate With a Delayed Hearing Loss After Hybrid L24 Implantation? Ear Hear. 2020 Aug 3;42(1):163-172. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000914.

Peter MN, Paasche G, Reich U, Lenarz T, Warnecke A. Differential Effects of Low- and High-Dose Dexamethasone on Electrically Induced Damage of the Cultured Organ of Corti. Neurotox Res. 2020 Aug;38(2):487-497. doi: 10.1007/s12640-020-00228-7. epub 2020 Jun 3.

Janzen-Senn I, Schuon RA, Tavassol F, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Dimensions and position of the Eustachian tube in humans. PLoS One. 2020 May 4;15(5):e0232655. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232655. eCollection 2020.

Schuon R, Mrevlje B, Vollmar B, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Intraluminal three-dimensional optical coherence tomography - a tool for imaging of the Eustachian tube?. J Laryngol Otol. 2019 Feb;133(2):87-94. doi: 10.1017/S002221511800230X. Epub 2019 Feb 18.


Peter MN, Warnecke A, Reich U, Olze H, Szczepek AJ, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Influence of In Vitro Electrical Stimulation on Survival of Spiral Ganglion Neurons. Neurotox Res. 2019 Jul;36(1):204-216. doi: 10.1007/s12640-019-00017-x. Epub 2019 Mar 7. erratum in: Neurotox Res. 2019 Apr 4;.

Peter MN, Paasche G, Reich U, Lenarz T, Warnecke A. [Reactions in the organ of Corti to electrical stimulation : StED technology for detecting changes]. ENT. 2019 Apr;67(4):251-257. doi: 10.1007/s00106-019-0641-7. Review. German.

Pohl F, Schuon RA, Miller F, Kampmann A, Bültmann E, Hartmann C, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Stenting the Eustachian tube to treat chronic otitis media - a feasibility study in sheep. Head Face Med. 2018 May 4;14(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s13005-018-0165-5.
Pohl F, Paasche G, Lenarz T, Schuon R. Tympanometric measurements in conscious sheep - a diagnostic tool for pre-clinical middle ear implant studies. Int J Audiol. 2017 Jan;56(1):53-61.

Dencker F, Dreyer L, Müller D, Zernetsch H, Paasche G, Sindelar R, Glasmacher B. A silicone fiber coating as approach for the reduction of fibroblast growth on implant electrodes. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2017 Nov;105(8):2574-2580. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.33798.

Miller F, Hinze U, Chichkov B, Leibold W, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Validation of eGFP fluorescence intensity for testing in vitro cytotoxicity according to ISO 10993-5. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2017 May;105(4):715-722. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.33602.

Schulze J, Kaiser O, Paasche G, Lamm H, Pich A, Hoffmann A, Lenarz T, Warnecke A. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on BDNF-release and neuroprotection: Investigations with human mesenchymal stem cells and genetically modified NIH3T3 fibroblasts as putative cell therapeutics. PLoS One. 2017 May 23;12(5):e0178182. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178182. eCollection 2017.

Scheper V, Hessler R, Hütten M, Wilk M, Jolly C, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Local inner ear application of dexamethasone in cochlear implant models is safe for auditory neurons and increases the neuroprotective effect of chronic electrical stimulation. PLoS One. 2017 Aug 31;12(8):e0183820. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183820. eCollection 2017.

Fadeeva E, Schlie-Wolter S, Chichkov BN, Paasche G, Lenarz T. Structuring of biomaterial surfaces with ultrashort pulsed laser radiation. in: Vilar R (ed.). Laser Surface Modification of Biomaterials - Techniques and Applications. Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials: Number 111. elsevier. 2016 :145-172.

Genzel S, Sen-Richter A, Reich U, Menzel H, Reuter G, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Fibroblast growth on patterned polymeric coatings. Physica status solidi (a). 2016; 213;6:1456-1462.

Lamm H, Müller-Kortkamp C, Warnecke A, Pohl F, Paasche G, Lenarz T, Stolle SR. Concurrent hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intratympanic steroid application as salvage therapy after severe sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Clin Case Rep. 2016 Feb 11;4(3):287-93.

Miller F, Hinze U, Chichkov B, Leibold W, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Validation of eGFP fluorescence intensity for testing in vitro cytotoxicity according to ISO 10993-5. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2015 Dec 24. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.33602. [Epub ahead of print].

Linke I, Fadeeva E, Scheper V, Esser KH, Koch J, Chichkov BN, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Nanostructuring of cochlear implant electrode contacts induces delayed impedance increase in vivo. Physica status solidi (a). 2015; 212;6:1210-1215.

Miller F, Burghard A, Salcher R, Scheper V, Leibold W, Lenarz T, Paasche G. Treatment of middle ear ventilation disorders: sheep as animal model for stenting the human eustachian tube - a cadaver study. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 24;9(11):e113906. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113906. eCollection 2014.

Burghard A, Lenarz T, Kral A, Paasche G. Insertion site and sealing technique affect residual hearing and tissue formation after cochlear implantation. Hear Res. 2014 Jun;312:21-7.

Ceschi P, Bohl A, Sternberg K, Neumeister A, Senz V, Schmitz KP, Kietzmann M, Scheper V, Lenarz T, Stöver T, Paasche G. Biodegradable polymeric coatings on cochlear implant surfaces and their influence on spiral ganglion cell survival. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2014 Aug;102(6):1255-67.

Kaiser O, Paasche G, Stöver T, Ernst S, Lenarz T, Kral A, Warnecke A. TGF-beta superfamily member activin A acts with BDNF and erythropoietin to improve survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Neuropharmacology. 2013 Dec;75:416-25.

Schlie-Wolter S, Deiwick A, Fadeeva E, Paasche G, Lenarz T, Chichkov BN. Topography and coating of platinum improve the electrochemical properties and neuronal guidance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Feb;5(3):1070-7.

Wefstaedt P, Paasche G, Parker J, Lenarz T, Stöver T. A device for patterned electrical stimulation of cultured cells: preliminary tests with rat auditory neurons. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 Mar;270(3):841-8.

Lenarz T, Pau H-W, Paasche G. Cochlear implants. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2013 Jan;14(1):112-23. review.

Before 2013
Bohl A, Rohm HW, Ceschi P, Paasche G, Hahn A, Barcikowski S, Lenarz T, Stöver T, Pau HW, Schmitz KP, Sternberg K. Development of a Specially Tailored Local Drug Delivery System for the Prevention of Fibrosis after Insertion of Cochlear Implants into the Inner Ear. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2012 Sep;23(9):2151-62.

Kontorinis G, Scheper V, Wissel K, Stöver T, Lenarz T, Paasche G. In vitro modifications of the scala tympani environment and the cochlear implant array surface. Laryngoscope. 2012 Sep;122(9):2057-63.

Warnecke A, Sasse S, Wenzel GI, Hoffmann A, Gross G, Paasche G, Scheper V, Reich U, Esser KH, Lenarz T, Stöver T, Wissel K. Stable release of BDNF from the fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 grown on silicone elastomers enhances survival of spiral ganglion cells in vitro and in vivo. Hear Res. 2012 Jul;289(1-2):86-97.

Reich U, Fadeeva E, Warnecke A, Paasche G, Mueller P, Chichkov B, Stoever T, Lenarz T, Reuter G. Directing neuronal cell growth on implant material surfaces by microstructuring. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part B - Applied Biomaterials. 2012 May;100(4):940-7.

Kontorinis G, Paasche G, Lenarz T, Stöver T. The effect of different lubricants on cochlear implant electrode insertion forces. Otol Neurotol. 2011 Sep;32(7):1050-6.

Kontorinis G, Lenarz T, Stöver T, Paasche G. Impact of the insertion speed of cochlear implant electrodes on the insertion forces. Otol Neurotol. 2011 Jun;32(4):565-70.

Paasche G, Ceschi P, Löbler M, Rösl C, Gomes P, Hahn A, Rohm HW, Sternberg K, Lenarz T, Schmitz KP, Barcikowski S, Stöver T. Effects of metal ions on fibroblasts and spiral ganglion cells. J Neurosci Res. 2011 Apr;89(4):611-7.

Warnecke A, Scheper V, Buhr I, Wenzel GI, Wissel K, Paasche G, Berkingali N, Jörgensen JR, Lenarz T, Stöver T. Artemin improves survival of spiral ganglion neurons in vivo and in vitro. Neuroreport. 2010 May 12;21(7):517-21.

Hahn A, T. Stöver, Paasche G, Löbler M, Sternberg K, Rohm H, Barcikowski S. Therapeutic window for bioactive nanocomposites fabricated by laser ablation in polymer- doped organic liquids. Advanced Engineering Materials. 2010 12:B156â€"B162

Paasche G, Tasche C, Stöver T, Lesinski-Schiedat A, Lenarz T. The long-term effects of modified electrode surfaces and intracochlear corticosteroids on postoperative impedances in cochlear implant patients. Otol Neurotol. 2009 Aug;30(5):592-8.

Scheper V, Paasche G, Miller JM, Warnecke A, Berkingali N, Lenarz T, Stöver T. Effects of delayed treatment with combined GDNF and continuous electrical stimulation on spiral ganglion cell survival in deafened guinea pigs. J Neurosci Res. 2009 May 1;87(6):1389-99.

Berkingali N, Warnecke A, Gomes P, Paasche G, Tack J, Lenarz T, Stöver T. Neurite outgrowth on cultured spiral ganglion neurons induced by erythropoietin. Hear Res. 2008 Sep;243(1-2):121-6.

Lenarz M, Lim HH, Lenarz T, Reich U, Marquardt N, Klingberg MN, Paasche G, Reuter G, Stan AC. Auditory midbrain implant: histomorphologic effects of long-term implantation and electrical stimulation of a new deep brain stimulation array. Otol Neurotol. 2007 Dec;28(8):1045-52.

Stöver T, Paasche G, Lenarz T, Ripken T, Breitenfeld P, Lubatschowski H, Fabian T. Development of a drug delivery device: using the femtosecond laser to modify cochlear implant electrodes. Cochlear Implants Int. 2007 Mar;8(1):38-52.

Lenarz T, Stover T, Buechner A, Paasche G, Briggs R, Risi F, Pesch J, Battmer RD. Temporal bone results and hearing preservation with a new straight electrode. Audiol Neurootol. 2006;11 Suppl 1:34-41.

Paasche G, Bockel F, Tasche C, Lesinski-Schiedat A, Lenarz T. Changes of postoperative impedances in cochlear implant patients: the short-term effects of modified electrode surfaces and intracochlear corticosteroids. Otol Neurotol. 2006 Aug;27(5):639-47.

Paasche G, Bogel L, Leinung M, Lenarz T, Stover T. Substance distribution in a cochlear model using different pump rates for cochlear implant drug delivery electrode prototypes. Hear Res. 2006 Feb;212(1-2):74-82.

Torkos A, Teschner M, Erfurt P, Paasche G, Lenarz T, Stover T. The use of buccal smears for a non-invasive screening of the 35delG mutation of the Connexin-26 gene in hearing impaired young children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Jun;70(6):965-71.

Stover T, Issing P, Graurock G, Erfurt P, ElBeltagy Y, Paasche G, Lenarz T. Evaluation of the advance off-stylet insertion technique and the cochlear insertion tool in temporal bones. Otol Neurotol. 2005 Nov;26(6):1161-70.

Zschornig O, Paasche G, Thieme C, Korb N, Arnold K. Modulation of lysozyme charge influences interaction with phospholipids vesicles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2005 Apr 25;42(1):69-78.

Paasche G, Gibson P, Averbeck T, Becker H, Lenarz T, Stöver T. Technical report: modification of a cochlear implant electrode for drug delivery to the inner ear. Otol Neurotol. 2003 Mar;24(2):222-7.

Paasche G, Gärtner U, Germer A, Grosche J, Reichenbach A. Mitochondria of retinal Müller (glial) cells: the effects of aging and of application of free radical scavengers. Ophthalmic Res. 2000 Sep-Oct;32(5):229-36.

Zschörnig O, Richter W, Paasche G, Arnold K. Cation-mediated interaction of dextran sulfate with phospholipid vesicles: binding, vesicle surface polarity, leakage and fusion. Colloid and Polymer Science. 2000 278:637-646.

Zschörnig O, Paasche G, Thieme C, Korb N, Fahrwald A, Arnold K. Association of lysozyme with phospholipid vesicles is accompanied by membrane surface dehydration. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2000 Mar;19(1):85-101.

Reichenbach A, Palhalmi J, Bringmann A, Biedermann B, Francke M, Pannicke T, Paasche G, Germer A, Kuhrt H, Grosche J, Härtig W, Reichelt W, Juhász G, Skatchkov SN, Faude F. Interactions between neurons and glial cells in the retina. In: Les Séminaires Ophthalmologiques d’IPSEN: Vision, génome et cerveau. Y. Christen, M. Doly, and M.-T, Droy-Lefaix, Eds, Irvinn, Paris. 1999 10:39-54.

Huster D, Paasche G, Dietrich U, Zschörnig O, Gutberlet T, Gawrisch K, Arnold K. Investigation of phospholipid area compression induced by calcium-mediated dextran sulfate interaction. Biophys J. 1999 Aug;77(2):879-87.

Germer A, Biedermann B, Wolburg H, Schuck J, Grosche J, Kuhrt H, Reichelt W, Schousboe A, Paasche G, Mack AF, Reichenbach A. Distribution of mitochondria within Müller cells--I. Correlation with retinal vascularization in different mammalian species. J Neurocytol. 1998 Jun;27(5):329-45.

Paasche G, Huster D, Reichenbach A. The glutathione content of retinal Müller (glial) cells: the effects of aging and of application of free-radical scavengers. Ophthalmic Res. 1998 30(6):351-60.

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Cochlear implant; surface modification; drug delivery; electrical stimulation; impedance; cell culture; primary cells; Eustachian tube; tubal dysfunction; histology.

PD Dr. Gerrit Paasche

+49 511 532 3808


Stadtfelddamm 34
30625 Hanover