NIFE Video

NIFE - Making-of




Head of Institute: Prof. Prof. h.c. Dr.-Ing. Birgit Glasmacher, M.Sc.
Institute for Multiphase Processes (IMP), Leibniz University Hannover (LUH)
phone: +49 511 762 3828, mail:

Speaker of the Research Group: Alexander Becker, M.Sc.
phone: +49 511 532 1341, mail:

Keywords: Development of biodegradable scaffolds and piezo-membranes, electrospinning, electrospraying, 3D-printing, development of bioreactors for calcification of heart valves, new dialysis membranes, drug delivery, degradation, rheology, tendon replacement, nerve guidance.

Main Research Topics

Our research is focused on degradable scaffolds for functional tissue engineering, on polymer processing for implant fabrication as well as the development of innovative implants. Furthermore, our research aims for the characterization and testing of materials and medical implants and the development of test procedures for their validation.

  • Electrospinning and electrospraying for Functional Tissue Engineering
  • Processing different types of polymers (degradable/permanent) as well as blends
  • Fabrication of tailor-made scaffolds for heart valves, blood vessels, nerves or tendon replacement (FOR2180)
  • Standardized test systems (e.g. tensile testing, porosity, surface energy, wettability) for novel implant designs
  • Validation of individual test benches for functionality testing (e.g. compliance, calcification, hemocompatibility)
  • Engineering and validation of dynamic test procedures applying flow or cyclic loading on degradable materials such as magnesium, hydrogels, PCL as well as drug delivery systems for pharmaceutical applications
  • Investigation of flow conditions and artificial surface interaction for cells and large molecules (e.g. dialysis, cardiovascular implants) via specific analyzing techniques (e.g. PIV, cLSM, RAMAN) combined with realistic flow models
  • Development of implant specific in vitro test setups combined with methods for surface characterization for testing medical products acc. to DIN EN ISO 10993 standards
  • Development of novel multilayered membranes with adjustable properties by utilizing the piezo-electric characteristics of electrospun PVDF


  1. S. Gniesmer, R. Brehm, A. Hoffmann, D. de Cassan, H. Menzel, A.L. Hoheisel, B. Glasmacher, E. Willbold, J. Reifenrath, M. Wellmann, N. Ludwig, F. Tavassol, R. Zimmerer, N.C. Gellrich, A. Kampmann. In vivo analysis of vascularization and biocompatibility of electrospun polycaprolactone fibre mats in the rat femur chamber. Histochem. Cell Biol. 2020;151 (4): 343-356.

  2. S. Gniesmer, R. Brehm, A. Hoffmann, D. de Cassan, H. Menzel, A.L. Hoheisel, B. Glasmacher et al. Vascularization and biocompatibility of poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber mats for rotator cuff tear repair. PloS One 2020;15 (1).

  3. D. Fricke*, A. Becker*, L. Jütte, M. Bode, D. de Cassan, M. Wollweber, B. Glasmacher, B. Roth. Mueller Matrix Measurement of Electrospun Fiber Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering. Polymers 2019;11: 2062 (* equal contribution).

  4. D. de Cassan, A. Becker, B. Glasmacher, Y. Roger, A. Hoffmann, T. R. Gengenbach, C. D. Easton, R. Hänsch, H. Menzel. Blending chitosan‐g‐poly(caprolactone) with poly(caprolactone) by electrospinning to produce functional fiber mats for tissue engineering applications. J Appl Polym Sci. 2019;94.

  5. D. de Cassan, A.L. Hoheisel, B.Glasmacher, H.Menzel. Impact of sterilization by electron beam, gamma radiation and X-rays on electrospun poly-(ε-caprolactone) fiber mats. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2019;30 (4): 42.

  6. E. Willbold, M. Wellmann, B. Welke, N. Angrisani, S. Gniesmer, A. Kampmann, A. Hoffmann, D. de Cassan, H. Menzel, A. L. Hoheisel, B. Glasmacher, J. Reifenrath. Possibilities and limitations of electrospun chitosan‐coated polycaprolactone grafts for rotator cuff tear repair. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2019: 1– 12.

  7. S. Hügl*, N. Aldag*, A. Becker, T. Lenarz, B. Glasmacher, T. S. Rau. Identification of factors influencing insertion characteristicts of cochlear implant electrode carriers. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2019;5 (1): 441-443 (* equal contribution).

  8. A. Tretiakov, V. Kapralova, N. Sudar, I. Sapurina, B. Glasmacher, O. Gryshkov. Conductivity Switching Effect in Nanofiber Composites Modified with Conducting Polymer. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Photonics (EExPolytech): 236-238, doi: 10.1109/EExPolytech.2019.8906888.

  9. A. Tretikaov, V. Kapralova, N. Sudar, O. Gryshkov, B. Glasmacher. Dielectric properties of PVDF-based thin films and electrospun mats. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 2019;1236 012009, doi 10.1088/1742-6596/1236/1/012009.

  10. S. Suresh. Improving cell infiltration in electrospun scaffolds for soft tissue engineering (2019) PhD Thesis Hannover Medical School, Hannover.

  11. S. Suresh, O. Gryshkov, B. Glasmacher. Impact of setup orientation on blend electrospinning of Poly-ε-caprolactone-Gelatin scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. Int J Artif Organs 2018;41(11): 801-810.

  12. F. Al Halabi, O. Gryshkov, A. I. Kuhn, V. M. Kapralova, B. Glasmacher. Force induced piezoelectric effect of PVDF and PVDF-TrFE scaffolds. Int J Artif Organs 2018;41(11): 811-822.

  13. V.M. Kapralova, N.L. Vaskova, E.B. Shadrin, A.V. Ilinsky, O. Gryshkov, B. Glasmacher. Cerebrospinal fluid thermoimpedancemetry as a method of brain diseases diagnostics. Int J Bioelectromagnetism 2018;20(1): 63-65.

  14. I.S. Bondarenko, O.G. Avrunin, O. Gryshkov, B. Glasmacher. Possibilities of joint application of acoustic radiation and direct magnetic field for biomedical research. Int J Bioelectromagnetism 2018;20(1): 66-67.

  15. F. Al Halabi, O. Gryshkov, A. I. Kuhn, V. M. Kapralova, B. Glasmacher. Piezoelectric properties of PVDF and PVDF-TrFE electrospun materials for nerve regeneration. J Biomed Radioelectron 2018: 123-126.

  16. J. Fuchs, M. Mueller, C. Daxböck, M. Stückler, I. Lang et al.: Histological processing of un-/ cellularized thermosensitive electrospun scaffolds. In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology 18 (2018), Nr. 12, 4247. DOI:

  17. S.R. Knigge, B. Glasmacher. Comparison between three in vitro methods to measure magnesium degradation and their suitability for predicting in vivo degradation. Int J Artif Organs 2018;41(11): 772-778.

  18. D. de Cassan, S. Sydow, N. Schmidt, P. Behrens, Y. Roger, A. Hoffmann, A.L. Hoheisel, B. Glasmacher, R. Hänsch, H. Menzel. Attachment of nanoparticulate drug-release systems on poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers via a graftpolymer as interlayer. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018;163: 309-320.

  19. K. Göke, T. Lorenz, A. Repanas, F. Schneider, D. Steiner, K. Baumann, H. Bunjes, A. Dietzel, J.H. Finke, B. Glasmacher, A. Kwade. Novel strategies for the formulation and processing of poorly water-soluble drugs. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2018;126: 40-56.

  20. C. Feldmann, E. Deniz, A. Stomps, S. Knigge, A. Chatterjee, R. Wendl, J.S. Hanke, G. Dogan, L.C. Napp, B. Glasmacher, A. Haverich, J.D. Schmitto. An acoustic method for systematic ventricular assist device thrombus evaluation with a novel artificial thrombus model. J. Thorac Dis. 2018;10(Suppl 15):S1711-S1719.

  21. N: Beißner, A. Bolea Albero, J. Füller, T. Kellner, L. Lauterboeck, J. Liang, M. Böl, B. Glasmacher, C.C. Müller-Goymann, S. Reichl. Improved in vitro models for preclinical drug and formulation screening focusing on 2D and 3D skin and cornea constructs. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2018; 126: 57-66.

  22. M.Yu. Tymkovych, O.G. Avrunin, V.G. Paliy, M. Filzow, O. Gryshkov et al. Automated method for structural segmentation of nasal airways based on cone beam assisted computed tomography. Photonics Applications in Astronomy, Communications, Industry, and High-Energy Physics Experiments 2017, Edition: Proceedings of SPIE, Chapter: 10445, Editors: Romaniuk Ryszard S., Linczuk Maciej, pp.104453F.

  23. T. Baudequin, L. Gaut, M. Mueller, A. Huepkes, B. Glasmacher, D. Duprez, F. Bedoui, C. Legallais. The Osteogenic and Tenogenic Differentiation Potential of C3H10T1/2 (Mesenchymal Stem Cell Model) Cultured on PCL/PLA Electrospun Scaffolds in the Absence of Specific Differentiation Medium. Materials 2017;10(12): 1387. DOI: 10.3390/ma10121387.

  24. M.I. Rahim, A. Weizbauer, F. Evertz, A. Hoffmann, M. Rohde, B. Glasmacher, H. Windhagen, G. Gross, J. Seitz, P.P. Mueller. Differential magnesium implant corrosion coat formation and contribution to bone bonding. J Biomed Mater Res A 2017;105(3): 697–709.

  25. M.I. Rahim, A. Tavares, F. Evertz, M. Kieke, J.M. Seitz, R. Eifler, A. Weizbauer, E. Willbold, H. Jürgen Maier, B. Glasmacher, P. Behrens, H. Hauser, P.P. Mueller. Phosphate conversion coating reduces the degradation rate and suppresses side effects of metallic magnesium implants in an animal model. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2017;105(6): 1622-1635.

  26. M. Granados, L. Morticelli, S. Andriopoulou, P. Kalozoumis, M. Pflaum, P. Lablonskii, B. Glasmacher, M. Harder, J. Hegermann, C. Wrede, I. Tudorache, S. Cebotari, A. Hilfiker, A. Haverich, S. Korossis. Development and Characterization of a Porcine Mitral Valve Scaffold for Tissue Engineering. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2017;10(4): 374-390.

  27. F. Dencker, L. Dreyer, D. Müller, H. Zernetsch, G. Paasche, R. Sindelar, B. Glasmacher. A silicone fiber coating as approach for the reduction of fibroblast growth on implant electrodes. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2017;105(8): 2574-2580.

  28. P. Basu P, A. Repanas, A. Chatterjee, B. Glasmacher, U. Narendra Kumar, I. Manjubala. PEO-CMC blend nanofibers fabrication by electrospinning for soft tissue engineering applications. Materials Letters 2017;195: 10–13.

  29. O. Gryshkov, N.I. Klyui, V.P. Temchenko, et al. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants. Mater Sci Eng C 2016;68: 143-152.

  30. H. Zernetsch, A Repanas, T. Rittinghaus, M. Mueller, I. Alfred, B. Glasmacher: Electrospinning and Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Fibers Using a Novel Gap-spinning Collector. Fibers and Polymers 2016;17(7): 1025-1032.

  31. M. Bensch, M. Mueller, M. Bode, B. Glasmacher. Automation of a test bench for accessing the bendability of electrospun vascular grafts. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2016;2(1): 307–310.

  32. A.I. Kuhn, M. Müller, S. Knigge, B. Glasmacher. Novel blood protein based scaffolds for car-diovascular tissue engineering. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2016;2(1): 5-9.

  33. A. Repanas, W.F. Wolkers, O. Gryshkov, M. Müller, B. Glasmacher: PCL/PEG Electrospun Fibers as Drug Carriers for the Controlled Delivery of Dipyridamole. J In Silico & In Vitro Pharm 2015;1(2): 1-10.

  34. A. Repanas, W.F. Wolkers, O. Gryshkov, P. Kalozoumis, M. Müller, H. Zernetsch, S. Korossis, B. Glasmacher: Coaxial Electrospinning as a Process to Engineer Biodegradable Polymeric Scaffolds as Drug Delivery Systems for Anti-Inflammatory and Anti- Thrombotic Pharmaceutical Agents. Clin Exp Pharmacol 2015;5(5): 192-199.

  35. A. Becker, H. Zernetsch, M. Mueller, B. Glasmacher. A novel coaxial nozzle for in-process adjustment of electrospun scaffolds’ fiber diameter: Electrospun mats and their dependence on process parameters. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2015;1(1): 104-107.

  36. M. Bode, M. Mueller, H. Zernetsch, B. Glasmacher. Electrospun vascular grafts with anti-kinking properties. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering 2015;1(1): 524–528.

  37. H. Zernetsch, A. Kern, P. Jäschke, B. Glasmacher. Laser processing of electrospun PCL fiber mats for tissue engineering. Int J Artif Organs 2015;38(11): 607-14.